In-Vessel Composting System

In the right hands, the closed-loop In-Vessel Composting System can be used to process a variety of organic feedstocks, including animal manures and food waste, into a high-value compost material.

The In-Vessel Composting System is an industrial grade, heavy duty system designed for high throughput.

The system utilizes an environmentally-friendly, accelerated aerobic biological oxidation method for superior waste organics stabilization with value-added byproducts. The rotating drum system features an extensive patent-pending aeration system, liquid management system, and a versatile biofiltration system.

Air/O2 Delivery System

  • Proper aeration and adequate oxygen levels are essential for metabolic activity of aerobic microorganisms necessary to achieve complete waste stabilization through the composting process
  • Patent-pending Air/O2 Administration Manifold and Multi-function Assembly Featuring Injection Sites Throughout System
  • Removable Injectors for Cleaning and Maintenance
  • External Manifold Running Length of Drum

Air/O2 Generation Equipment

  • Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) Oxygen Generator for Purified Process Oxygen
  • Air Compressor & Dryer For Oxygen Generator Feed and System Purge


  • Moisture, gases, and exhaust from the system pass through an integrated filtration system to prevent odors and harmful gases from escaping.
  • Multiple Filtration Media Options

Liquid Tea Management System

  • A marketable byproduct of the process is a highly concentrated liquid organic fertilizer
  • Dual technology system extracts compost tea from both composting process and finished product

Multiple Internal & Exterior Coating Options including

  • Insulating Ceramic Shell Coating
  • Immersion-grade Glass Flake Epoxy
  • Insulation
  • Insulation with Metallic Skin
  • Polyurethane Liners

Operating Temperature

  • 95°F to 155°F


  • Timer-Cycled Drum Rotation
  • Start & Stop Intervals
  • Motor Start/Stop/Emergency Stop Controls
  • Touchscreen HMI
  • PLC/Data Logger/Automation Controls

Power Requirements

  • Drum Motor Drive: 2-5HP, 230/460V, 3 PH
  • Aeration System and Biofilter Blower Additional

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Smart System Instrumentation Package

A full suite of sensors and monitoring is available to optimize and control your process.


Temperature might be the most important parameter involved in aerobic stabilization of solid organic waste and is an EPA-regulated parameter for proper pathogen and weed seed destruction. Under optimal conditions, composting proceeds through three phases: 1) the mesophilic, or moderate-temperature phase, 2) the thermophilic, or high-temperature phase, 3) cooling and maturation phase. Different communities of microorganisms predominate during the various composting phases. Initial decomposition is carried out by mesophilic microorganisms, which rapidly break down the soluble, readily degradable compounds. During the thermophilic phase, high temperatures accelerate the breakdown of proteins, fats, and complex carbohydrates like cellulose and hemicellulose, the major structural molecules in plants and other materials.As the supply of these high-energy compounds becomes exhausted, the temperature gradually decreases and mesophilic microorganisms once again take over for the final phase of “curing” or maturation of the remaining organic matter.


Another qualifying parameter, moisture content of 50-60% is generally considered optimum for composting. Microbiologically-induced decomposition occurs most rapidly in the thin liquid films found on the surfaces of the organic particles. Whereas too little moisture (<30%) inhibits bacterial activity, too much moisture (>65%) results in slow decomposition, odor production in anaerobic pockets, and nutrient leaching. Composting proceeds best at a moisture content of 40-60% by weight. At lower moisture levels, microbial activity is limited. At higher levels, the process is likely to become anaerobic and foul-smelling.

Material Level

The in-vessel composter operates at 80% fill (vol.) which is necessary to maintain adequate levels and proper mixing.

Ambient Air Temperature

The ambient temperatures can be measured to give the system more information to base input adjustments.

Dissolved Oxygen (DO)

Adequate oxygen levels are an absolute requirement for maintaining the aerobic process and achieving waste stabilization. Otherwise, anaerobic methanogenic bacteria will dominate, producing harmful methane gas and foul odors.

Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

This gas is produced during aerobic respiration and must be kept at low levels in order to make the oxygen available to the aerobic microorganisms.

Electrical Conductivity (EC)

An estimate of ions present, also called total dissolved solids (TDS).


A pH between 5.5 and 8.5 is optimal for compost microorganisms. As bacteria and fungi digest organic matter, they release organic acids. In the early stages of composting, these acids often accumulate. The resulting drop in pH encourages the growth of fungi and the breakdown of lignin and cellulose. Usually the organic acids become further broken down during the composting process. If the system becomes anaerobic, however, acid accumulation can lower the pH to 4.5, severely limiting microbial activity. In such cases, aeration usually is sufficient to return the compost pH to acceptable ranges.


Turbidity is the cloudiness or haziness of a fluid caused by individual particles (suspended solids) that are generally invisible to the naked eye, similar to smoke in air. The measurement of turbidity is a key test of water quality.

Liquid Level

Monitor system’s liquid management system.

Air/Gas Flow Meter

Measurement flow within the closed exhaust treatment system.

Methane (CH4 )

Potentially harmful, methane is the primary component of biogas produced by anaerobic digestion which is different from the aerobic digestion on which this system focuses. Elevated levels would indicate a need for increased aeration and mixing within the system.

Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

This gas is produced during aerobic respiration and must be kept at low levels in order to make the oxygen available to the aerobic microorganisms.

Ammonia (NH4)

Ammonia Gas is an indication of chemical imbalances in the composting system requiring an adjustment in the feedstock.

Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S)

Hydrogen Sulfide Gas can indicate poor stabilization of the material.

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In-Vessel Composting Inquiry

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